on equine limbs in riding horses
This illustration depicts the extreme lateral stress when riding on hard surface. B shows navicular area and when combined with the break-over factor, no wonder we have so much lameness associated with navicular bone. The A and A1 shows the "stretching" and "compressing" of the lower joints (ligaments, bones). The joint capsules take real beating in such case, not to mention the compression stress on the bones involved. D shows a common injury of the splint bone and F and E shows the over-expanding - compressing stress on the "knee" joint, capsule.
This illustration depicts the reduction of the lateral stress due to a deeper riding surface. The grass is even better, providing it is not completely dried out and hard.
This photo depicts extreme lateral stress, especially on the stifle that appears to be traveling in a crippling position and very much off track. It is obvious that this horse is already very much sore in the stifles, not mention the horse is clearly off balance, very much on the forehand, hind end falling out etc. The riding surface is obviously not deep enough, hence this horse is heading for a premature end of his riding career.
today’s horsemanship, the lateral stress on equine limbs in riding
horses is again very much ignored factor. Understanding this will help you
keep your horse sound and it will prolong his duration in service.
layman’s terms, the flexibility of horse’s joints is designed more or
less “lengthwise” and much less “sideways”. Even though the
skeletal structure of a human is very much similar to the horse, we have
much more sideways flexibility in joints than the horse. However, the most
important fact in flexibility is that horses are literally walking
(running) on toes (fingers). In other words, if you check your fingers,
the first two joints of the first three links have almost no flexibility to the
side. It is finally in the third joint (in the horse the ankle –
fetlock), where we find some flexibility however, in us humans
significantly more than by the horse. Again in the wrist (by the horse the
so-called “knee” (carpus)) we have much more flexibility to the side than the horse. The
above all mentioned joints (bones and ligaments involved) in horses are the ones that get abused the most
(especially in the fixed
position) when we ignore the factors of lateral stress, which is closely tied to the
type of surface on which we are riding the horse. In the hind legs the
most abused joint is the stifle (in human the knee), mainly the ligaments
involved (joint capsule as well), which is for most
part the first one to get sore since it also suffers by the altered
movement of the horse caused by the weight of the rider. The stifle injury is in
most cases the primarily injury in riding horses. For most part it is
ignored, because we diligently ride horses in both direction, hence both
stifles get sore equally, thus there is no apparent lameness (horses just
do not want to put the hind end under and use it, do not want to gallop on
one lead etc.). On account
of the injured (sore) stifles, the horse will favor the hind legs; will
travel more on the forehand, which will eventualy result into more serious
injuries of the forelimbs.
The three major
factors that are playing an important role in the lateral stress
are, the riding surface,
and the speed
in which the horse is moving. The speed and the sharpness of the turn will determine the
the angle that the body of the horse forms with the ground. The faster we
are going in the turn, the sharper the angle and greater the stress sideways on joins,
bones and ligaments .
When we are riding a horse in the turn on a hard surface, the hoof stays
parallel to the ground, though the body is in an angle, henceforth, the
joints must flex sideways. The sharpness
of turn and the relevance of the
which it is performed should determine the depth of the working surface.
Henceforth, the barrel racing horse needs much more deeper surface than
for example the dressage horse. I have seen that the barrel racing people
for most part going by this “rule”, but not the dressage people. In
most dressage riding arenas the surface is very shallow and hard despite the
fact that the dressage horse spends much more time working in turns than
the barrel racer. Henceforth, the time
that the horse spends working in turns is also a great factor.
lunging on a hard (insufficiently
deep) surface will definitely bring an early end to the working career of
The lunging on a hard (insufficiently deep) surface will definitely bring an early end to the working career of your horse.
Most common injuries resulting from the extreme or prolonged lateral stress are:
In hind legs the stifle, most of the time it is the initial injury that triggers the overstress of the forelimbs.
legs causing the navicular
ringbone, side-bone, splints, ankles and in higher speeds the “knee”
The prevention of the above injuries, as well as, the reduction of the lateral stress consist of the following:
Proper riding surface, adequate riding in balance and suitable shoeing (no squared toes). The reduction of the movement to the side/turning will also benefit the horse, especially if he already has some soundness problems.
In order to make this article more search friendly we are including other possible spelling of a word used to describe above mentioned activity of lounging horses. Other spelling include: lunging horses, longeing horses, loungeing horses, lungeing horses.
Original and unedited publication
Written by Ludvik K Stanek a.k.a Lee Stanek